MEMORIZE THE SKY (NYC) /JASON ALDER (AMSTERDAM)
Memorize the Sky, the longstanding improvisational trio of Matt Bauder on reeds and electronics, Zach Wallace on bass and Aaron Siegel on percussion will be performing in Brooklyn, Boston, Toledo and Chicago as part of a record-release tour in December 2010. Their new LP, “Creeks” is due out on December 15th on the Detroit-based Broken Research record label. This tour marks Memorize the Sky’s 10th year of performances as an improvisational unit.
December 14, 2010, 8:00 pm – IBeam Music Studio, 168 7th Street Brooklyn, NY
December 15, 2010, 8:00 pm – Spectacle, 17 Edinboro Street #3 Boston, MA
December 18, 2010, 8:00 pm – Robinwood Concert House, 2564 Robinwood Ave Toledo, OH
December 19, 2010, 10:00 pm – Hungry Brain, 2319 W. Belmont Ave Chicago, IL
Memorize the Sky is a collaboration between reedist Matt Bauder, bassist Zach Wallace and percussionist Aaron Siegel. The three met and began playing music together in Ann Arbor, Michigan during the late 1990’s. Since then, they have performed together as Memorize the Sky, touring around the United States and Europe, crafting their own brand of acoustic improvised music. In addition to their first two full-length recordings, “Memorize the Sky” on 482 Music and “In Former Times” on Clean Feed Records, the band has self-released three 3” cd singles, appeared on various compilations, and are featured on “2 + 2 Compositions” a collaboration with Anthony Braxton, released in 2005 on the 482 Music label.
Jason Alder is a contemporary, improvising, and electronic musician. Originally hailing from the metro Detroit area, since 2006 he has based himself in Amsterdam. An alumnus of the Interlochen Center for the Arts summer programs, he holds Bachelor of Music degrees from the classical departments of both Michigan State University (US- Clarinet Performance), and the Conservatorium van Amsterdam (NL- Bass Clarinet). Jason is currently pursuing a Master’s of Music in creative improvisation in the jazz department of the ArtEZ Conservatorium (NL) and has also directed a significant amount of his studies towards computer/electronic music, ethnomusicology, and audio engineering. His teachers and instructors have included Richard Alder, Richard Hawkins, Kimberly Cole, Andrew Harwood, Frank Ell, Yaniv Nachum, Ernesto Molinari, and Erik van Deuren. He also studied electronic and computer music with Mark Sullivan, live electronics and Max/MSP with Jos Zwaanenburg, and both the classical reading and jazz improvisation tracts of Advanced Rhythm/Contemporary Music through Non Western Techniques (South Indian classical Karnatic music) with Jos Zwaanenburg and Rafael Reina.
Jason is an active clarinet and bass clarinetist, keeping a busy performance schedule as a soloist, improviser, chamber and session musician, and with various orchestras, jazz ensembles, and bands in the United States and Europe, also sometimes playing saxophones. He is a specialist in new and contemporary music, and has been working closely with composers while in Amsterdam, having premiered several pieces solo or as part of an ensemble. As an improviser, he is a founding member of the electro-acoustic improvisation duo Sonido 13; is a member of the Magic Lantern Show Orchestra, which improvises soundtracks to silent films; works with members of the improvised dance and theater community; and plays often with other members of the Amsterdam improvised and experimental music scene. Jason is also a founding member of the klezmer trio Payazen, which has taken him to the Glastonbury Festival and on tours around Italy, the UK, and Ireland.
He has performed in the Berliner Philharmonie, at the International Gaudeamus Muziekweek in Amsterdam’s Muziekgebouw in 2006 & 2009, as well as the 2008 & 2010 Internationale Saxofoonweek in Amsterdam. In 2009 he attended the IMPULS International Ensemble- and Composers-Academy for Contemporary Music in Austria where he worked with members of Klangforum Wien, as well as premiering three pieces in the groundbreaking MELE (Motion Enabled Live Electronics) concert, which resulted in a paper being accepted to the 2009 Sound and Music Computing Conference. In addition, Jason produces in various genres of electronic and electro-acoustic music as a member of the collective TransformersDetroit, including a piece for bass clarinet and electronics, A’d amssong, and with hip-hop producer Das. Past projects include playing bass guitar, saxophones, clarinets, or electronics in various bands including Exchange Bureau, June Ruin, the Toobnoodles, and Spinfist.
In addition to teaching clarinet and saxophone lessons, with Sonido 13 he also gives workshops on non-idiomatic improvisation. Jason is also a skilled recording engineer and editor, and operates a small recording business, N&K Music and Audio, out of the Detroit and Amsterdam areas. Beginning his training working in the Recording Services department while studying at MSU, he has over 10 years of experience specializing in live concert and solo to mid-sized ensemble studio recordings. He has engineered recordings for numerous solo, chamber ensemble, band, orchestra, and choral events in southeast Michigan and Amsterdam, as well as his own classical and stage band recordings.
DEC 6 @ RCH
BENJAMIN MILLER/DR. RHOMBOID GOATCABIN
Miller’s intuitive approach to creating a quasi-dimensional sound field features a deconstructed electric guitar modified with multiple pickups. First used in the Ann Arbor, MI art band GKW in 1982 and then with Chicago’s Dirty Old Man River in the mid-90‘s, Miller’s instrument fabricates a textural, cacophonic amalgamation that defies standard guitar playing. With the addition of electronics, radio and analog tape, it is difficult to discern where any one sound originates or where it is heading. He has performed and given workshops at the following festivals; M.I.C.A., Buffalo Infringement, Megapolis, New York Eye & Ear, MegaHZ, and Sonic Circuits.
Ben Miller has a lot of experience in the experimental music-world. He created a solo- performance “Degeneration” with a prepared guitar. The guitar is contacted with a lot of analog en digital effects and has been played with all kind of objects and found materials. The CDR “Live Performances and Radio Broadcasts” gives a wide variety of different recordings with monophonic radio-cassette, VHS and DAT. Miller plays a lot with all kind of sounds with his guitar and he created his own musical world which is highly experimental, but with a lot of concentration and knowledge of the material used. The sphere ismelancholic, minimal, calm and restless and he combines these moods without any problem. A great album with an unexpected and ongoing use of the guitar and effects. – Vital Weekly 2010
SPROTON LAYER (guitar, vox 1969-72, w/brothers Roger [Mission of Burma] and Laurence [Mr. Laurence])
EMPOOL (guitar, alto sax, tapes 1976-78 – group led by Laurence)
DESTROY ALL MONSTERS (alto sax, vox, songwriter 1977-78 w/Ron Asheton [Stooges] & Michael Davis [MC5])
NONFICTION (guitar, vox, songwriter 1981-1985; w/brother Laurence)
GKW (multiple instruments, composer 1982-1994 w/Robert Currie and others)
M3 (multiple instruments, composer 1989-present, w/brothers Laurence & Roger)
DIRTY OLD MAN RIVER (prepared multiphonic guitar 1997-2000)
THIRD BORDER (guitar, vox, songwriter 2003-2010)
THE SENSORIUM SAXOPHONE ORCHESTRA (conductor, composer 2008-present: 15-members)
DR. RHOMBOID GOATCABIN
Based in Toledo, Ohio. For several years, Dr. Rhomboid Goatcabin has been one of the most inventive and unpredictable sound artists in the area. With a heavy emphasis on improvisation and chance operations, DRG navigates the listener thru an array of poised electronic collages and a convulsing ritual of aural exorcisms , often achieved by tradition instruments, toys, household goods and random electronic devices. DRG sonic repertoire incorporates spontaneous performance art with a fine line between dreams and nightmares.
Woody Sullender is an artist currently based in Brooklyn, NY. Over the past decade, Sullender has emerged as a pre-eminent experimental banjo performer, playing with and against the cultural baggage of the instrument. While alluding to the “traditional” musics of his home states of Virginia and North Carolina, he explores a diverse plane of plucked string music from around the world as well as incorporating punk, noise, free jazz, etc..
With technical advising from STEIM, Sullender has been developing an electro-acoustic banjo. Various parameters of computer synthesis and processing algorithms are controlled by sensors on the instrument. The computer-based audio is output to a transducer within the banjo (basically turning the banjo itself into a speaker).
More recent work focuses on “erasing” existing known audio, by removing most of the frequencies from a recording via band-pass filters. This has manifested in a range of media from a lathe-cut record of an erased “Smells Like Teen Spirit” to an FM broadcast of erased radio stations.
Previously, he has worked with pioneering electronic composers such as Pauline Oliveros and Maryanne Amacher (incorporating his banjo recordings into Amacher’s “TEO! A sonic sculpture” which won the Golden Nica prize at the 2005 Ars Electronica festival).
Seamus Cater is an English musician / composer / performer, living and working in the Netherlands. He studied music and performance at Dartington College of Arts and The University of Salford where he specialised in harmonica and composition.
Through jazz and more experimental forms of music his harmonica style has crystallised into a sonic exploration of an instrument with enormous limitations of expression and identity. He mostly retunes all instruments, often using just intonation, making music which is concerned with breath and the overtone series. A current important collaboration is with the avant garde NYC banjo player Woody Sullender.
In January 2009 he began making performances for narrating voice, song, piano and harmonica, etc. The first, ‘for Alexis’2009, was a solo which dealt with the story of the 19th century French Canadian athlete Alexis the Trotter. These performances go under the moniker Anecdotal Music, a series Seamus started at DNK Amsterdam. Anecdotal Music performances are open in terms of form, expressing some kind of story or history using text and music. His second performance in this series, ‘The Folk Music, the Whale and the Sea’, loosely connected fiction and history of the 18th century whaling trade, using folk and improvised music structures in a trio with Viljam Nybacka and Fritz Welch.
As a songwriter, Seamus is continuing to write and perform a growing series of biographical songs of artists and athletes. He works solo and frequently with the Finnish musician Viljam Nybacka, inviting other performers from the improvised music world to add to the sonic tapestry of what are essentially simple pop songs. Much of this new music has a relationship to the British folk music revival of the 1950’s, without in any way trying to recreate it; Seamus’ father is an English folk singer active since the 1960’s.
Seamus has produced numerous works for film, dance and theatre and is a programmer and organiser of the highly thought of concert series DNK Amsterdam.
Randall Hall is a leading interpreter of contemporary music for saxophone. His performances of new music range from the contemplative to the ferocious, and feature his mastery of extended techniques, most notably his formidable slap tongue, cutting edgeelectronics and white-hot improvisations. Innova Recordings describes his music as “high-octane, supercharged sax”. In addition to his solo concerts he regularly performs in the contemporary improvisation duoPendulum. Hall is also a distinguished interpreter of traditional concert music.
Internationally active as a performer and clinician, Hall has given concerts and solo performances throughout North America, Europe and Asia. He has given lectures and master-classes on aesthetic and technical issues of new music at institutions around the world, including Harvard University, Cornell University, the Eastman School of Music, New England Conservatory, the Luxembourg Conservatory and the World Saxophone Congress. Dedicated to the continued development of new music and saxophone repertoire, Randall Hall collaborates closely with composers and has premiered pieces by James R. Carlson, Kevin Ernste, Figure, Stephen Gorbos, Jing-Jing Luo, Colin J. P. Homiski, Jonathon Kirk, Christian Lauba, Nicolas Scherzinger, Mary Stiles, and Paul Swenson.
Randall Hall is the recipient of numerous honors including a Fulbright Grant, Frank Huntington Beebe Grant, Presser Music Award and the Premier prix in the Concour Région Ile-de-France. He studied saxophone with Claude Delangle, Jean-Yves Fourmeau, Jean-Michel Goury, Kenneth Radnofsky, and Ramon Ricker. Dr. Hall holds degrees from the Eastman School of Music (DMA), the New England Conservatory (MM), the Conservatoire National de Région de Boulogne-Billancourt, France (Premier prix) and Warner Pacific College (BS). He is Assistant Professor of music at Augustana College in Rock Island, Illinois, where he teaches saxophone, improvisation, music theory and liberal studies.
Jonathon Kirk is a chicago-based composer and teacher active in many areas of new music, improvisation, electronic music, multimedia, sound art, installation, and music theory. he is currently assistant professor of music composition and theory at north central college in naperville, illinois. his work has recently been shown or heard at the tate modern in london, the london international animation festival, the melbourne international animation festival, weisman museum of art in minneapolis, the los angeles short film festival, the courtisane festival in brussels, belgium, the boston cyberarts festival, visual music marathon, listening in the sound kitchen, icmc, nime, ZKM center for art and media in karlsruhe , germany, and spark festival. in late 2009 he was an artist-in-residence at the petrified forest national park in arizona.
his works have been performed by many international musicians and he continues to compose both acoustic and electronic works for a wide variety of ensembles and soloists, including the harvard collegium musicum, the millennium chamber players, and members of alarm will sound. in 2000 and 2001 he received a grant from the belgian government to be in residence at the logos foundation for experimental music in gent, belgium where he worked with godfried willem-raes and collaborated with thomas smetryns, brent wetters, joann cho, and heleen van haegenborgh.
he also works closely with composer and sound artist lee weisert on several sound projects and installations; most recently the argus project, an environmental sound installation involving underwater recording, laser modulation, and real-time processing of natural sounds with a multichannel outdoor speaker array. his research includes desert and natural soundscapes and otoacoustic emissions. he studied at the eastman school of music, augustana, brown university, and recieved his doctorate at northwestern university. he is a member of the duo pendulum with randall hall, the tomorrow music orchestra of chicago and the chicago-based post-rock ensemble, maurice. his works have been recorded on innova records, medusa records, and ears and eyes records.
¿i’d m thfft able?/ Matt Endahl/ Clay Kolbinger @ RCH
MIND BLOWING ! One of the most enjoyable and weirdest set your ever see – enough said! From Portland, Maine. Not to be mysterious, but to try to sum up his set in words is just wrong.
Forced Collapse (Liz Allbee / Chris Riggs) + Larry Marotta/Mike Shifflet + John Olson@ RCH
Forced Collapse is the New American Improvisation/Post-Lachenman Extended Technique Laboratory/Michigan Electronic Noise Made Real Through Acoustic Instruments Trumpet and Guitar duo of Liz Allbee and Christopher Riggs.
Liz Allbee is a voracious musician whose work spans many genres, encompassing new music, improvisation, electronic composition, Asian folk and pop, noise, minimalist, free jazz and experimental rock. She plays in the pop band Neung Phak, in the experimental Neanderthal troubaduo Marauder and Alibi, and in the Jon Raskin Quartet, and has performed and recorded with a wide array of musicians.
Oberlin Conservatory of Music graduate Christopher Riggs draws equally from the worlds of Michigan Noise, European Free Improvisation, and his classical training to create a language of effects-pedal-less extended guitar techniques that are uniquely his own. Current collaborations, some of which are documented on his Holy Cheever Church record label, include Ben Hall, Liz Allbee, Joe Morris, and Gino Robair.
Larry Marotta is a musician, composer, and improviser based in Columbus, Ohio. He has performed original silent movie scores throughout the US. His movie soundtracks have appeared on Turner Classic Movies and on DVDs released by Kino International. His career as a performer has covered a lot of territory. Noted composer Rocco Di Pietro wrote Laterwith Larry’s unique style of guitar playing in mind, and the piece has been performed in Los Angeles and New York City. As an improviser, he plays guitar with an eclectic mix of musicians including Burning Star Core, Ryan Jewell, Envenomist, Tatsuya Nakatani, Mike Shiflet, Kyle Bruckmann, Ernst Karel, Dave Rempis, Neil Feather, and many others. Currently, he curates the Marotta Hour new music series at the OSU Urban Arts Space.
for many years has been producing and releasing great electronic and electro-acoustic music out of Columbus,Oh. Shiflet never seems to have a normal shtick , besides his love for sine waves and low frequncies. Often utilizing test gear, strange computer programs, manipulated mixers, and found objects. The collaboration with Larry Marrota will likely focus on subtleties and sonic improvisations.
Along with his hand in Wolf Eyes and a relentless label – American Tapes and playing strange music all over the world. Olson continues to challenge himself and listeners with his knowledge of electronics, as well as his reed playing, Spykes, his solo project, lands him at the controls of a mutant mixer and a single “possessed” saxophone.
Lina Allemano Four/Beak full of Rubies/Billowing @ RCH
Toronto’s LINA ALLEMANO FOUR has been hailed as one of Canada’s most vibrant cutting edge avant-jazz groups. Known for their inventiveness and synergy, they deftly blur the line between composition and improvisation. Their music showcases Lina’s progressive and open compositional style combined with her band’s exquisite expressiveness and knack for the unexpected. A stimulating dynamic of interaction and spontaneity assures that the group’s performances are always lighthearted and full of surprises. The band has toured extensively over the past 5 years, having released two widely acclaimed CDs, Gridjam (2008) and Pinkeye (2006), and will be releasing their third album in 2010.
Lina Allemano Four’s recent highlights include: feature performances at Jazz Festivals and major tours across Canada; recordings for CBC Radio and TVO; nominations for Canadian Independent Music Awards’ Favorite Jazz Group and National Jazz Awards Acoustic Group of the Year.
Press Quotes about Lina Allemano Four GRIDJAM:
“Sweet, but also short, Gridjam displays an enticing emotional dichotomy between smeary melancholic interludes and upbeat lyricism”
“Four of Canada’s best jazz players are heard leaping nimbly between concise bop and free-flowing sonic adventure, playing with agility, momentum and empathy, balancing intelligence and virtuosity with humour and moments of tenderness”
“A stellar album… there’s always plenty of room in the music, a dynamic that not only draws the listener in but allows trumpeter Allemano and her crew to take the music further out”
The Globe and Mail
“Wholly captivating… awe-inspiring interplay… fascinating and full of the unexpected”
“There is a true synergy at work in this album… Lina’s work is some of the most challenging and textured soundscapes in North American jazz circles”
BEAK FULL OF RUBIES
Beak Full Of Rubies is Scott Deroche, Chuck Sipperly & Chandan Narayan. Collective improvisers and Michigan noise dudes in a sub-category of natural and organic fascination improvise and rustle in an elctro-acoustic via sampled noise and prepared instruments style. The group began in 2005 and has been fading in and out of formation sporadically ever since, playing minimal gigs and recording in short, focused bursts. The sound is intense and contemplative, finding a place outside of academic composition, but also a harsh noise sound more beautiful than brutal.
Basing their sound around haunted echo and dubby tape manipulation, Billowing is the relatively new duo of Scott Deroche and Fred Thomas. The somewhat unlikely combination of improvised vocalizations run through a myriad of processing and prepared guitar result in a slow-building and often horrifying mesh of psychedelics falling somewhere between Goblin’s horror soundtracks and Scientist’s stoney dub mixes. The group has several releases already, including a one-sided LP on LifeLike, limited to 100 copies.
Illusion of Saftey / Corridors/CJ Boyd @ RCH
Illusion of Saftey
Since 1983 Illusion Of Safety has been the ongoing project of Daniel Burke, working alone and with various collaborators. They have released over 20 CDs on labels such as Complacency, Die Stadt, Experimedia, Odd Size, Silent, Soleilmoon, Staalplaat, Tesco, and Waystyx, and played over three hundred concerts in Europe and North America. IOS’ work has been called ambient, post-industrial, electro-acoustic, noise, sound collage, improvisation, and power electronics, but they are unwilling to limit their work to any given style or method. The sonic character and affective substance of the music will often shift abruptly within each recording and live performance.
Daniel Burke is currently working with conventional instruments, electronic synthesis, computer composition, samples, and highly amplified handled objects. He uses improvised and composed structures containing material that confounds memory and stimulates perception. The resulting music encompasses broken sound, disturbed ambience and unfiltered beauty that collectively evokes an awareness of the ineffable. The work activates modes of perception to facilitate direct access to the psyche, emotions, and the infinite in order to address the necessity of balance and the nature of dichotomy.
Travis Bird is a Chicago multi-instrumentalist. His restlessness with the guitar has led him into improvised and nonmusical territory, at the same time that he develops a melodic style incorporating complex, extended harmonies, driving fingerstyle playing, and a fondness for incompleteness and repetition. As a solo songwriter and as the drummer in the Leavitt Ours, his focus is on crafting thoughtful, harmonically rich songs that immerse the listener as deeply as possible.
Byron Westbrook (b. 1977) is an artist working with the dynamic quality of physical space using multi-channel sound and images. His audio/video performances under the name CORRIDORS involve the distribution of processed instrumental and environmental recordings through a multi-channel environment with a focus on energy distilled from sound and light. He has presented at venues such as Tonic, Roulette, The Stone, Diapason Gallery, Issue Project Room, Experimental Intermedia, Exit Art Gallery, (NYC), Les Voûtes (FR), Wien Konzerthaus (Austria), NonEvent (Boston), Sonic Circuits Festival (DC), Institute of Intermedia (CZ). He has shared performance bills with Tony Conrad, Phill Niblock, Jandek, Sawako, Heribert Friedl, Stefan Tcherepnin, Maria Chavez, Alessandro Bosetti, Jason Kahn, Jon Mueller, Tetuzi Akiyama, among many others. Westbrook has also collaborated with Paris-based composer and former Kitchen curator Rhys Chatham in the drone metal group Essentialist (Table of the Elements), as well as performed in the ensembles of Phill Niblock, Rhys Chatham, Glenn Branca, Duane Pitre, David Watson and Jonathan Kane. He has worked as technical coordinator of Phill Niblock’s Experimental Intermedia Foundation since 2004. In 2007, he was the recipient of the Jerome Foundation Emerging Artists Commission through Roulette Intermedium. In 2008 he was an artist in residence at Hotel Pupik at Sclhoss Schrattenberg. A cd will be released in Fall 2010 on Sedimental Records. He currently lives and works in Brooklyn, NY
“To call Byron Westbrook a composer of breathtakingly beautiful ambient pieces and drone works is reasonably accurate but painfully reductive; Westbrook, whose work under the name Corridors has involved acoustic instruments, field recordings, spatialized playback and lighting, is the kind of artist for whom the old, mostly disused term intermedia was coined.” –TimeOut New York
Equal parts ambient and virtuosic, melancholic and playful, CJ Boyd’s bass playing melts glaciers, creating a sea of low, flowing rhythms, while also supplying melodies that soar over the ocean to melt the sun itself. Waves of bass loops are garnished with harmonica drones and constant improvisational exploration. This is deep-sea-diving for the hungry and alone. While certainly following in the footstep of great bassists like Mingus and Meyer, Boyd’s aesthetic sensibility also seeks to wed the minimalism of Reich and Glass with what might be called the maximalism of Beethoven chamber music. But all this is further complicated by the presence of Boyd’s improvisational prowess. Not funky, not a bassplayer’s bassplayer exactly, but something refreshing and impressive-improvising with fingers that only know how to dance to the deepest tunes. One thinks Nietzsche might have had CJ in mind when he said, “Maturity consists in regaining the seriousness one had as a child at play.” This is childsplay for the experienced listener.
Jon Mueller has been an active drummer and percussionist over the past 25 years, becoming increasingly focused on a physical dialog between situation and material, often bypassing standard approaches to percussion and considering the space in which that sound is presented in order to create a larger experience for those listening. His recordings have been featured in a variety of contexts, from cassette tape to MTV, and he has performed concerts throughout the U.S., Japan, and Europe. He has worked with members of the groupsSwans,Wilco, andRhys Chatham’s Guitar Trio, as well as being a longtime member of the groupCollections of Colonies of Bees, and recently,Volcano Choir. He has also collaborated with artists such asJames Plotkin, Marcus Schmickler, Dan Burke, Jonathan Kane, Asmus Tietchens, Lionel Marchetti, Z’EV, Jason Kahn, Jack Wright,and many others.
According to others:
“An audacious ringleader for new music”–Pitchfork
“Percussive rhythms are maintained in a kind of high-energy holding pattern, a stasis produced by extreme physical effort, always on the point of collapsing or blurring into pure texture.”–The Wire
Mike Shiflet for many years has been producing and releasing great electronic and electro-acoustic music out of Columbus,Oh. Shiflet never seems to have a normal shtick , besides his love for sine waves and low frequncies. Often utilizing test gear, manipulated mixers, and found objects. Shiflet has made many significant album appearances with Yellow Swans and Burning Star Core, and has a healthy discography.
R Keenan Lawler is a Louisville Kentucky based musician,sound artist, improviser and composer.For nearly thirty years he has been a restless explorer of sound from rock to electro- acoustic improvisation and many points in between. Since the late nineties he is best known for developing a highly idiosyncratic difficult to categorize language on the metal bodied resonator guitar fueled by minimalism,blues,asian and african musics,ancient and modern classical, psychedelia and jazz. Lawler is known for solo performances and recordings and also as a collaborator and perfomer working with a diverse range of like-minded artists among them: Matmos, Rhys Chatham ensembles, Charlambides, Pelt, My Morning Jacket, Tatsuya Nakatani,Paul K and the Weathermen,Connor Bell, Mike Tamburo and the Universal Orchestra of Pituitary Knowledge,David Watson, Helena Espvall,Lukas Ligeti, Ut Gret, Ignaz Schick, John Butcher, Christian Kiefer and Jon Mueller. Lawler’s music can be found on such labels as Important,Tompkins Square,New American Folk Hero, Music Fellowship, Rebis, Eclipse and Table of the Elements who released the acclaimed,”Music for the Bluegrass States”. He performs live regularly and has participated in such festivals as High Zero,Fantastic Voyagers,Time of Rivers,Transmissions,Greetings Fellow Pickers,Terrastock 7 and Table of the Elements Bohrium. His sound art has been presented in PS1 Brooklyn,Henry Art Seattle.and in Louisville via collaboration with artists Thaniel Ion Lee ,Valerie Fuchs and Russell Hulsey.
Read more: http://www.myspace.com/keenanlawler#ixzz0whfwmyHv
Metal Rouge / Jane Austen and Sam Hamilton @ RCH
Métal Rouge was formed in 2006 by Helga Fassonaki and Andrew Scott in Auckland, New Zealand with no aim but to open themselves to the spontaneous psych tonalism running through the underbelly of popular music like a vein of pure lightning. Birthed from the rich history of New Zealand underground they began to mold a sound comprised equally of the forward motion of ecstatic jazz and the drugged stasis of NYC loft minimalism circa ’66. Using electric guitar, vocals and amplified santur as their primary instruments, they forged a new vocabulary of unrefined free spiritual music. Relocating to Los Angeles, they toured the US, adding lap steel and pedal steel to their arsenal. Drummer/Trombonist Caitlin M. Mitchell joined in 2009, bringing with her a night/day spectrum ranging from pure brass drone through to aggressive free rock. Related projects include Yek Koo (Helga solo), Nest (Andrew & Nigel Wright), Un Ciego (Andrew solo), Huzun (Andrew & Tim Coster), Dogwiper (Caitlin, Ged Gengras & Seth Kasselman), and Low Light Situations (Caitlin, Ged Gengras, Jake White & Seth Kasselman). Métal Rouge have releases on Root Strata, Not Not Fun, Stunned, Digitalis, and Emerald Cocoon (previously Seymour Records).
“We’ve no choice but to rise higher than ever into the ultraviolet spectrum as Metal Rouge continue their liberated refinement, casting chunks of 6-string trance, extreme jazz vocals and black metal into a blistering, beautiful gas inferno…” – Stunned Records
Sam Hamilton makes FREEWAVE music, or in the words of musical pals Peaking Lights “fucked modern pop”, a ecstatically vibrant and celebratory exploration of the future of music. rather than a genre, FREEWAVE is a 21st century musical perspective, a perspective soaked in boundariless hybridisation, ambiguously positioned between the inclusive familiar, intrinsically universal musical departure points and the and the exotic wonderings in the magic unknown. a music of ultra inclusivity, exploring the connected tangents that run the gamut of music from the first primal wailings of pre-humans to the mind melting nxt-lvl leaps in our ever expanding cultural orientation. Sam Hamilton live performances are a mixture of ecstatic spectral explosions of sparkling sound rays, throbbing voodoo pulsations and an energetic sonic friction between freak-out fun and magical transformation
Jack Wright & Bob Marsh / Basshaters
JACK WRIGHT. After teaching at Temple University in the 1960s and leaving academia in the early 1970s to engage in radical politics and community organizing, by the late 1970s Wright directed his energies into music. He is one of a very small group of musicians in North America that has played improvised music exclusively since the 1970s. Through years of near constant touring, often performing for audiences in cities and towns where improvised music had never before been heard, he came to be regarded as something of an underground legend. He has deliberately eschewed the conventions and socio-aesthetic limitations of musical careerism to pursue his own vision. Although his de-professionalized approach sets him apart from most musicians at his level of accomplishment, his art has always grown, expanded, and synthesized new information. He is unquestionably an original and virtuosic saxophonist, a master improviser who is deeply lyrical, with humor never far away.
Today Wright tours frequently in Europe and North America (and in Japan in 2006), making new musical and human connections, bringing European musicians to the U.S. and bringing musicians everywhere together. His inspiration has provided crucial impetus to hundreds of musicians and has even motivated several people to establish music venues in order to present him and other improvisers (e.g. Baltimore’s High Zero festival). His vast list of collaborators includes some “name” luminaries (William Parker, Axel Dorner, Michel Doneda, Andrea Neumann, Denman Maroney, Bhob Rainey to name a few) but more significant are the many obscure greats he has played with. He has made over 40 recordings (many published on his own Spring Garden label), performed in over 20 countries, and written extensively and insightfully about music and society for journals such as Improjazz (France) and Signal to Noise (US), as well as his own website. http://www.springgardenmusic.com/
Bob Marsh is a well seasoned improviser whose work has involved shaping sounds words images ideas. Originally from Detroit, Marsh arrived in the Bay Area in 2000 after ten years in Chicago where he played with most of the avant improvisers in that rich and varied scene. Since his arrival on the west coast, multi-instrumentalist and composer Marsh has been busy with several projects. He currently leads or directs String Theory, a string ensemble focusing on textures and microtonics; the Che Guevarra Memorial Marching (and Stationary) Accordion Band, structured and free improv for six to fifteen accordions; Robot Martians, electronics and processed voice; the Out of the Blue Chamber Ensemble, a mixture of reeds and strings; Opera Viva, voiced physical theater; the Quintessentials, a quintet specializing in interpreting graphic compositions based on alterations to the Michelin Road Guide to France; and the Illuminated Orchestra, structured improves for large ensemble. Additionally Marsh is a member of Romus/Diaz-Infante’s Abstractions, Jim Ryan’s Left Coast Improv Group, Moe! Staiano’s Moe!chestra and Tom Bickley’s Cornelius Cardew Choir. Bob Marsh tours frequently with his long term partner saxophonist Jack Wright. Bob has recently been presenting a solo work involving violin, voice and tap shoes. Marsh’s educational background includes a BFA in sculpture and an MA in humanistic clinical psychology. He has studied classical piano, classical guitar and vibraphone and has taught himself various other instruments. He currently is active with cello, accordion, violin, voice, vibraphone and electronics.
Basshaters (tony dryer: double bass, electronics + jacob felix heule: drum set, electronics) is a duo using double bass, drum set, and electronics to integrate acoustic free improv and electronic noise. Striving to match the fluidity of their textural acoustic music, electronics expand the timbral and dynamic options to new extremes. The duo seeks directness and intensity in execution; subtleties emerge from the bold statement of simple ideas.
In addition to Basshaters, Dryer & Heule have released an album on Creative Sources with clarinetist Jacob Lindsay. They have a trio CD with saxophonist Jack Wright, and have performed live with diverse musicians such as Michel Doneda, C Spencer Yeh, Gino Robair, and Damon Smith. Dryer has toured with the Flying Luttenbachers and Usurp Synapse; Heule remains active with his brutal improv duo Ettrick.
Nick Hennies @ RCH
Nick Hennies is a percussionist and composer from Louisville, KY currently residing in Austin, TX. His work is primarily concerned with redefining and re-purposing the role of traditional percussion instruments through repetition, meditation, and immersion. He received his M.A. in percussion from the University of California-San Diego in 2003 where he studied with renowned percussionist Steven Schick and currently performs with The Weird Weeds, Waco Girls, and the Austin New Music Co-op. In addition to solo work Hennies has collaborated with Arnold Dreyblatt, Radu Malfatti, Jandek, Charles Curtis, Ellen Fullman, Michael Pisaro, and many other composers and improvisers from the United States and abroad. His work as both performer and composer can be heard on Quiet Design, Sentient Recognition Archive, Full Spectrum, Thor’s Rubber Hammer, and more.
–July 17th @ Robinwood Concert House
Kamama + Bob Drake
Audrey Chen: cello/voice/electronics
Audrey Chen is a chinese-american musician and performance artist born outside of chicago in 1976. using the cello, voice and analog electronics, chen’s work focuses on the combination and layering of traditional and extended techniques. a large component of her music is improvised and her approach to this is often extremely personal and visceral. her performance work incorporates sound, movement and visual/sculptural concepts. chen performs solo and in collaboration with a wide number of musicians and dancers. Among musicians, she has worked with many great improvisers, including phil minton, elliott sharp, aki onda, phill niblock, alessandro bosetti, mike cooper, mats gustafsson, sten sandell, mazen kerbaj, michael zerang, tatsuya nakatani, assif tsahar, scott rosenberg, le quan ninh, joe mcphee, susan alcorn, michele doneda, paolo angeli, and gianni gebbia. some current projects include duos with gianni gebbia, alessandro bosetti and nate wooley. the SILO trio with nate wooley and leonel kaplan. and Trockeneis with andy hayleck, dan breen, catherine pancake and paul neidhardt. chen has performed in europe, russia, australia, new zealand, china, japan, taiwan and the USA. She is currently based in Baltimore, MD USA where she is member of the red room and high zero collective, an on-going series and international festival devoted to experimental improvised music.
KAMAMA sound sample here
Bob Drake is an electronic musician based out of Cleveland, Ohio. Sometimes performing under the moniker Fluxmonkey, After completing an 5-year apprenticeship as a violin maker, he’s focused on original electroacoustic instruments, installations, and modular synthesis.
Drake has also has been active in setting up workshops in Cleveland. His instruments vary from a homemade mounted steel cylinder covered with tunable strings to found industrial objects to an elaborate array of strange synthesizer modules. Bob’s music is very manual, always working sounds and timbal nuances, his performance is a both sonically engaging as well as visually stimulating.
July 8th @ Robinwood Concert House
TATSUYA NAKATANI+POVERTY HYMNS+THE LOVE STORY
is originally from Osaka, Japan. In 2006 he performed in 80 cities in 7 countries and collaborated with 163 artists worldwide. In the past 10 years he has released nearly 50 recordings on CD.
He has created his own instrumentation, effectively inventing many instruments and extended techniques. He utilizes drumset, bowed gongs, cymbals, singing bowls, metal objects, bells, and various sticks and bows to create an intense, organic music that defies category or genre. His music is based in improvised/ experimental music, jazz, free jazz, rock, and noise, yet retains the sense of space and beauty found in traditional Japanese folk music.
Poverty Hymns (Buffalo)
Poverty Hymns is the performing/recording moniker of Buffalo, NY’s T. Andrew Trump (w ((aa)) ouw, tentetOctet) . Trump composes/records/performs his pieces using only one track, making tireless use of the guitar, two loop pedals and a sampler.The music outlines tragic loss within overwhelming hope. Phrases change direction and speed as if battling a case of manic indecisiveness. Ranked patterns lose their synchronicity, developing their individuality. All trying to find their way home. http://www.reverbnation.com/povertyhymns
The Love Story (New York)
Keir’s Neuringer sets consist of a loosely composed (organ/analog electronics) crescendoing drone that he compliments with a lung bending, circular breathing approach to acoustic saxophone. http://freemusicarchive.org/music/keir_neuringer/
June 15th Ray Evanoff+Timothy McCormack/Chris Riggs @ RCH
June 1st“MADE IN NORWAY” Ballrogg & Vertex – 2 Norwegian duos
Saxophone player Klaus Ellerhusen Holm and bass player Roger
Arntzen have joined forces and created the duo Ballrogg. The duo
started out exploring the music of Eric Dolphy in a small format,
stripped down to only bass and reeds in 2006. Songs from greats such
as Paul Bley, Ornette Coleman and Jimmy Giuffre was soon also
brought into the concept, aside with compositions by the group itself.
The results was some free jazz-classics combined with spacy and
energetic originals placed into an acoustic chamber setting.
The focus is now exclusively on original compositions. Trying to melt
the two instruments into one sound Ballrogg is emphasizing sustained
sounds, intervals and textures, and integrates it into clear and simple
Klaus Ellerhusen Holm – alto saxophone/ clarinet/ feedback
Roger Arntzen – double bass
Ballrogg, released their second album Insomnia in January 2010 on
Bolage. Since their critically acclaimed self-titled debut album the duo
has moved into significantly deeper water, drawing influences from
European contemporary music as well as American avantgarde. On
Insomnia, their influences are mixed with a cinematic sensitivity,
creating soundscapes that are deeply disturbing and stunningly
Ballrogg has since the debut been touring in Scandinavia, Europe and
Klaus Ellerhusen Holm (sax, clar) leads his own group Klaus Holm
Kollektif, who was awarded “Yong Nordic Jazzcomets 2003”. He plays
free-improvised music with the Norwegian trio Murmur and has
worked with international artists such as Raymond Strid, Axel Dörner,
Jim Denley, Mattias Ståhl, Ingebrigt Håker Flaten, Ingar Zach, Sture
Ericson and Frode Gjerstad, and has done tours on festivals and
jazzclubs in several countries in both Europe, America and Asia. The
last years he has also composed music for various chamber music
settings and also music for film.
Roger Arntzen (double bass) is known from the piano trio In The
Country, who was awarded “Young Jazz Musicians Of The Year
2004” in Norway. The trio has released three albums on the Norwegian
cult-label Rune Grammofon to much acclaim. He is a regular together
with Shining-leader Jørgen Munkeby with the noise-rock-jazz-quartet
Chrome Hill and has teamed up with Chrome Hill-drummer Torstein
Lofthus as two thirds of Håvard Stubø Trio. He has also worked with
downtown NYC icon Marc Ribot and pedal-steel guitarist Bob
Hoffnar, and other international artists such as Neil Metcalfe, Terry
Day, John Russell, Sidsel Endresen, Susanna Wallumrød and Stian
Vertex spontaneously compose electro-acoustic music that is both
immediate and enticing to listen to. From lowercase drones through
acoustic melodic passages to assaulting industrial walls of sound, vertex
creates a plausible yet otherwordly soundscape with its own set of natural
laws. A universe that focuses in on form and interaction.
Vertex has been active since 2006. The duo has already done many festival-
and club-conserts, and has also done a tour with the extremely talented
Christian Wallumrød as a musical guest. As musical references one could
list Huntsville, Jim O´Rourke, Fred Frith, Spunk, Keith Rowe, Fennesz,
Deathprod, Perlonex and Lasse Marhaug.
Petter Vågan (b. 1982) is a hard-working up and coming impro-musician
who´s becoming a household name in Norway these days, he´s released
several albums and toured all over Norway, Sweden, Russia, USA,
Canada,Germany and the Netherlands. He´s playing on guitars, lapsteels
and prepared guitars, and utilizes an array of effects in a delicate manner,
to mangle and distort reality in his own way. He has a performing masters
degree from the world-renowned jazz course the Conservatory of Music
in Trondheim. He´s has played with musicians like Christian Wallumrød,
Ståle Storløkken, Mathias Eick, Håvard Wiik, Håkon Kornstad, Thomas
Strønen, Jonas Kullhammar, Mats Eilertsen, Lene Grenager and Kjetil
Tor Haugerud (b. 1962) has been an active musician, composer and
performanceartist for the last 24 years. He´s developed a unique
playingstyle with his unorthodox drum set and use of electronics and
unconventional instruments like fans, drills, singing bowls, bows, stones.
Has in recent years operated in the more free musical landscapes, with
musicians like Kim Myhr, Christian Wallumrød, Stian Westerhus, Martin
Taxt, Jon Balke, Sidsel Endresen, Ingar Zach, Eirik Hegdal, Michael
Duch, Kjetil Møster etc, and with the groups Alpaca Ensemble, Én Én Én,
Murmur, and TIE (Trondheim Improvisasjons Ensemble).
-May 23rd Seeded Plain (Bryan Day)/ Maria Chavez from NYC
Nebraska improvised music duo Seeded Plain performs pieces shaped by the possibilities suggested by the instruments they’ve built, graphic scores, and in response to collaborators. Founded in 2007 by Bryan Day and Jay Kreimer, Seeded Plain has performed throughout the Midwest US and Europe. Their first release ‘Land Tracts’ was released in 2008 to positive critical reviews in North America and Europe. Their upcoming release ‘2’ will be available this year on Creative Sources. Seeded Plain is currently working with Nebraska playwright and director Robert Stewart on the soundtrack for his upcoming play Inferno Terra Firma.
Bryan Day is an improviser, composer, instrument builder, and concept artist based in Lincoln, NE. Originally from Minneapolis, he arrived in Nebraska by way of Iowa, where he studied illustration and sculpture. Day focuses on intuitive sound performance using unconventional techniques in prepared environments. His instruments are constructed using practical composite designs, melding everyday objects with finished oak and metal forms. Day’s idiosyncratic compositional methods and personal sonic vocabulary evoke a sense of uncomfortable balance.
Day has toured throughout the US, Europe, Japan, Argentina and Mexico, performing both solo as Sistrum and Eloine and in the Shelf Life and Seeded Plain ensembles. He has collaborated with many artists including Liz Albee, Takashi Aso, Jim Baker, Federico Barabino, Tore Honore Boe, Dirk Bruinsma, Jorge Castro, R.P. Collier, Alan Courtis, George Cremaschi, Ernesto Diaz-Infante, John Dikeman, Jonathan Fretheim, Nancy Garcia, Carol Genetti, Eckhard Gerdes, Greg Goodman, Dereck Higgins, Kommisar Hjuler, Zan Hoffman, Mike Honeycutt, Yoshiaki Kinno, Jay Kreimer, Eric Leonardson, Unconditional Loathing, Bob Marsh, Hal McGee, Patrick McGinley, Tatsuya Nakatani, Keith Nicolay, Brian Noring, Terje Paulsen, Sabrina Siegel, Matthew St. Germain, Jack Wright, Tsukasa Yagihashi, and Toru Yoneyama.
Festival appearances include Transistor festival (Denver, 2009), Quiet Music festival (Cork, Ireland, 2008), Sonic Circuits festival (Washington, D.C., 2007), Soundfield festival (Chicago, 2005), and SubZero festival (Minneapolis, 2001). Day has over 40 solo and ensemble releases on labels such as Friends and Relatives, Gameboy, Freedom From, Digitalis, Featherspines, Neus-318, Journal of Experimental Fiction, Unread, and Seagull.
In addition to sound art production, Day is studying Butoh and physical theater. Since 1997 he has been running the new music label Public Eyesore and its sister label Eh?.
Jay Kreimer is a musician, instrument maker, sculptor, composer and educator. More to the point, he is an alchemist of hardware stores, surplus catalogs, and discarded objects, who assembles new things out of scraps of possibility. Kreimer performs with The Mighty Vitamins and Seeded Plain, as well as solo.
In 2008, Kreimer and Bryan Day crossed Europe performing as Seeded Plain. The tour included Dublin, Cork, London, Glasgow, Berlin, Amsterdam and Paris.. In August 2008, Kreimer performed Red Crickets, Yellow, Blue, in the Move>Sound: Soundwave Series in San Francisco. In October Kreimer did a solo performance at the renowned D-22 in Beijing. He presented an interactive talk/performance at the 2008 ISIM conference in Denver. There he collaborated with India Cooke, LaDonna Smith and Trudy Morse in a Sun Ra tribute. Kreimer performed an interactive piece on his invented instruments and computer at the December 2009 conference in Santa Cruz. In Santa Cruz he also performed with Norman Lowrey and Pauline Oliveros (in her avatar form). Other recent performances include the Re:Makeit festival in Santa Fe, and a Mighty Vitamins collaboration with Kwangwoo Kim and Kikuchi Biyo at Art Farm residency. The Mighty Vitamins have performed at the Intuit Art Center in Chicago, and The Garden of Eden in Lucas, Kansas/
Born in Peru, avant-turntablist Maria Chavez currently resides in Brooklyn, New York.
Chavez’s work is focused on short solo electro-acoustic sound pieces using a collection of new and broken needles that she calls “pencils of sound” and a selection of records, which provide the palette. Many of her live sound installations have focused on the paradox of time and the present moment, with many influences stemming from improvisation in contemporary art.
Her work has been recognized by the Jerome Foundation, which awarded her the Emerging Artist Grant by New York’s Roulette Intermedium in 2008. In 2009, she became a recipient of the Van Lier Fellowship which is generously offered to young sound artists by The Edward and Sally Van Lier Fund of the New York Community Trust.
She has traveled extensively, sharing the stage with Pauline Oliveros, Alan Licht, Phil Niblock, and Otomo Yoshihide to name just a few. She has performed in venues including the Contemporary Arts Museum in Bordeaux, France; the Akademies der Kunste in both Vienna and Berlin; and Sonoteca in Lima, Peru. She was an artist in residence in 2008 with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company and the DIA:Beacon Museum and will perform this summer at the Whitney Museum of American Art as part of Christian Marclay’s retrospective.
“When I play live, I am improvising,” he explains. “Just from practice, I have a general idea of the sort of extended techniques and various little objects I can use on my drum and what things work well. Generally for the structure of my performances I like to use discrete sonic gestures that may punctuate or even blossom out of the silence that surrounds each. For these reasons I like to call myself a sonic organizer.”
Callahan creates using traditional and exotic percussion instruments augmented by electronics, either “circuit-bent gizmos” or Max/MSP on his laptop. The absence of sound, and the spaces between sounds, plays an integral role in his compositions.
Ben Bennett uses drums, percussion, and found objects to create an always-suprising sonic landscape. a couple of press quotes:
“Channeling influences from the realms of maximalist free jazz, minimalist free-improv, Paul McCarthy-esque performance art, and primitive technology, Bennett explores an untamed land of sound and action with a shocking degree of candor and sensitivity.” -Don Forks
“Ben Bennett sounds like a zoo of nonexistant animals, and behaves like the sufferer of a nonexistant mental disorder.” -Peter Neckerson
-May 4th Tsigoti (esp disk) & The Quickness @ Manhattans
The customary digital riddles characterizing the genius of
this master pianist are all but forgotten here, for this
sounds more as a semi-acoustic punk album. Beaten-up
instruments, muttered vocals, rhythms and keys often
disrespected; the exclusive wish is crying out loud that
“we can’t do this to ourselves anymore”, as per one of
the tracks titles. When we compare the fusion of these
sensations to a sort of feverish pagan ritual and listen
to this set with the same attitude of, say, looking at a
shaman dressed like a young Joe Strummer, the
honesty of intentions begins to clash (pun definitely
intended) with our previous ideas pretty hard.
Bizarrely frank stuff.
– Massimo Ricci, TouchingExtremes, Italy
-April 10th KONK PACK/KBD/VIC RAWLINGS+BEN HALL @ RCH
– March 8th Nautical Almanac / Weyes Blood/ Maths Balance Volumes/ Dog Lady @ RCH
Nate Wooley- trumpet
Ben Hall- percussion
Chris Riggs- guitar
Wooley currently resides in Jersey City, NJ and performs solo trumpet improvisations as well as with his trio Blue Collar with Steve Swell and Tatsuya Nakatani. He has also performed regularly with Anthony Braxton, Bhob Rainey, Alessandro Bosetti, Fritz Welch, Herb Robertson, Kevin Norton, Tony Malaby, Randy Peterson, Scott Rosenberg, Matt Moran, Chris Speed, Andrew D’Angelo, Tim Barnes, Okkyung Lee, Assif Tsahar, and other improvisation luminaries.
Hall is an improvising percussionist/timpanist from Detroit, Mi and a founding member of 1/4 speed free jazz unit Graveyards with John Olson of Wolf Eyes >Studied trap set with Milford Graves >Working units include: Bill Dixon Trio with Aaron Siegel, >Rope Eater with Joe Morris and Chris Riggs >Trauma with Chris Riggs >Melee with Nate Wooley and Chris Riggs>The New Monuments with C. Spencer Yeh and Don Dietrich >Duos with Don Dietrich and Wally Shoup.
Riggs studied guitar and composition at Oberlin Conservatory.
He plays guitar in Trauma with percussionist Ben Hall, Traum with ‘cellist Hans Buetow and Ben Hall, a trio with Joe Morris and Ben Hall, and in duos and trios with pianist Matt Endahl and violinist Mike Khoury. Riggs guitar playing changes drastically to drone textures to muted arpeggiated notes similar to Derek Bailey
2564 Robinwood ave
February 8th @ Boazrts
electro acoustic compositions and no-input mixing. Nicholas Slaton, in addition to playing double bass, coaxes diverse and sometimes bizarre sounds from pedals, samplers and mixers. Starting each show with no pre-record samples he layers electronically generated loops forming the basis of each piece. Glitches of equipment misuse are sampled and manipulated into musical content.
Mahlon Hoard (Brooklyn,NY)
composes through the art of improvisation. Mahlon Hoard plays fully acoustic solo soprano saxophone, which may easily be mistaken for electronic music. Employing circular breathing,extended pieces are created resulting in multiple layers of development. Deceptively simple melodies pull the listener in, revealing intricate layers. Refined and unique,his playing has been describe as a refreshing mix of contemporary, traditional, and ancient influences.
Cleft Ruin (Toledo,OH)
is a newly formed duo of Gabe Beam and Anton Jessberger improvising instant composition via ringing metals,electronics and selected percussion varying from dense to minimal.